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Whether you are an insurer, broker, reinsurer or insured party, you face an increasingly unpredictable world. From day-to-day operational matters to strategic planning, liability and disputes resolution, policy drafting, coverage and regulatory issues, your world is changing rapidly as tougher capital and risk requirements impact your business. With 100 specialist lawyers in 33 countries, we are attuned to your commercial interests and can protect them in your home market and across borders. Our approach is based on strong local legal knowledge delivered to you on a European-wide basis by experts who truly understand the insurance sector.

Many of our lawyers have worked in the insurance sector which means we understand the complexities of your markets. Whether you require guidance on claims, regulation policy drafting, wider business disputes, M&A, capital raisings and restructurings, cyber liability, HR, tax, real estate or commercial issues, our multi-disciplinary specialists can help you. We have a recognised domestic and cross-border track record of delivering for clients on the most complex transactional and advisory engagements in this sector. Equally, In the event of a domestic or cross-border insurance or reinsurance dispute, we can guide you through the disputes process, striving to secure the best business outcome.


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15/06/2022
The former Mo­scow of­fice of CMS to con­tin­ue work­ing as an in­de­pend­ent law...
On 15 June 2022, the former Mo­scow of­fice of the in­ter­na­tion­al law firm CMS an­nounces the start of work as an in­de­pend­ent law firm un­der the new brand name SEAM­LESS Leg­al.Over 80 col­leagues of the Mo­scow of­fice con­tin­ue work­ing as one team, led by Man­aging Part­ner Jean-Fran­cois Mar­quaire and Seni­or Part­ner Le­onid Zubar­ev.We keep ad­vising our cli­ents across all 23 prac­tices and sec­tors: We lean on 30 years of ex­pert­ise and an im­pec­cable repu­ta­tion as part of an in­ter­na­tion­al law firm. We have al­ways abided by strict pro­fes­sion­al stand­ards and will con­tin­ue provid­ing ser­vices of the highest qual­ity. Jean-Fran­cois Mar­quaire, Man­aging Part­ner: “We are proud of hav­ing been able to cre­ate and pre­serve a united team with a friendly cor­por­ate cul­ture and re­spons­ible at­ti­tude to our busi­ness.”Le­onid Zubar­ev, Seni­or Part­ner: “Our new brand SEAM­LESS Leg­al most ac­cur­ately re­flects the ap­proach to work that has de­veloped over the years in our firm – in­teg­rity and co­her­ence, im­pec­cab­il­ity, con­tinu­ity and un­in­ter­rup­ted sup­port to our cli­ents at any time."
15/03/2022
Rus­si­an counter-sanc­tions: an in­sur­ance per­spect­ive
On 14 March 2022, a new law was pub­lished as a part of the Rus­si­an re­sponse to sanc­tions im­posed by for­eign states. Law No. 55-FZ* af­fects a num­ber of areas in­clud­ing in­sur­ance and re­in­sur­ance.Para­graph 2 of Art­icle 3 of the Law provides that, un­til 31 Decem­ber 2022, Rus­si­an in­surers can­not enter in­to con­tracts with in­surers, re­in­surers and in­sur­ance brokers res­id­ent in un­friendly states, and with in­surers, re­in­surers and in­sur­ance brokers con­trolled by res­id­ents of un­friendly states. Ac­cord­ing to Pres­id­en­tial De­cree No. 95* dated 5 March 2022 and Gov­ern­ment Res­ol­u­tion No. 430-r* dated 5 March 2022, the list of un­friendly states in­cludes the US, EU, UK, Aus­tralia, Canada, Ja­pan and a num­ber of oth­er coun­tries.The Law fur­ther provides that Rus­si­an in­surers can­not trans­fer money to any of the above en­tit­ies un­der con­tracts con­cluded pri­or to the ef­fect­ive date of the Law (14 March 2022). Such trans­fers as well as new con­tracts can only be made in ex­cep­tion­al cases sub­ject to a Cent­ral Bank per­mit. By ac­ci­dent or not, Rus­si­an in­sur­ance com­pan­ies, re­in­sur­ance com­pan­ies and brokers con­trolled by for­eign in­vestors are also sub­ject to this ban.There could be the fol­low­ing im­plic­a­tions for in­surers in­clud­ing Rus­si­an in­surers and re­in­surers con­trolled by for­eign in­vestors:They will not be able to place re­in­sur­ance through brokers based in or con­trolled by res­id­ents of un­friendly states or Rus­si­an sub­si­di­ar­ies of in­ter­na­tion­al brokers even if the risk ends up in a friendly state.Rus­si­an in­surers con­trolled by res­id­ents of un­friendly states will be ad­di­tion­ally hit by the in­ab­il­ity to ac­cept new re­in­sur­ance busi­ness from Rus­si­an in­surers.As it will not be pos­sible to trans­fer any re­in­sur­ance premi­ums to or by these “un­friendly” in­surers, re­in­surers and brokers, ex­ist­ing re­in­sur­ance policies could be ter­min­ated leav­ing the in­sureds without suf­fi­cient in­sur­ance and re­in­sur­ance pro­tec­tion.Also, trans­fers of re­in­sur­ance or ret­ro­ces­sion share of any loss to these en­tit­ies would not be pos­sible.Cus­tom­ers of Rus­si­an in­sur­ance com­pan­ies could also face neg­at­ive con­sequences, such as:An in­surer may re­fuse to enter in­to an in­sur­ance con­tract be­cause its own re­ten­tion lim­its will be ex­ceeded and it will not be able to trans­fer the risk abroad or to a Rus­si­an sub­si­di­ary of a for­eign “un­friendly” in­surer.New risks as­sumed by Rus­si­an in­surers can­not be trans­ferred un­der ex­ist­ing treat­ies to for­eign “un­friendly” in­surers or their Rus­si­an sub­si­di­ar­ies (no re­in­sur­ance premi­ums can be paid), the risks will re­main on their own re­ten­tion or will be trans­ferred to com­pan­ies with low rat­ings. If an in­sured event oc­curs, there is a high risk of bank­ruptcy for Rus­si­an in­surers as they are un­able to trans­fer the risk to highly-rated re­in­surers, there is also a high risk of not re­ceiv­ing the in­sur­ance in­dem­nity.There could be a breach of pro­vi­sions in loan agree­ments re­quir­ing in­sur­ance/re­in­sur­ance policies to be is­sued by reput­able com­pan­ies with high in­ter­na­tion­al rat­ings (tech­nic­al de­fault with all its con­sequences). Some activ­it­ies will be at risk of stop­page (e.g. air trans­port) due to in­ab­il­ity to re­in­sure high risks in for­eign com­pan­ies loc­ated in un­friendly coun­tries.The Law provides for a pos­sib­il­ity to ob­tain a spe­cial per­mit from the Cent­ral Bank “in ex­cep­tion­al cases”.  It re­mains to be seen how will­ing the Cent­ral Bank will be to is­sue them as there is no pro­ced­ure or timeline for the is­su­ance.* In Rus­si­an
14/03/2022
The Mo­scow of­fice of CMS to con­tin­ue as an in­de­pend­ent law firm
Dear FriendsWe have been through a lot dur­ing 30 years in Rus­sia. Now a dif­fi­cult de­cision has been taken by CMS to leave the Rus­si­an mar­ket. We are grate­ful to our in­ter­na­tion­al col­leagues for their...
28/01/2022
Leg­al de­vel­op­ments that may af­fect your busi­ness in 2022
CMS Rus­sia ex­perts have pre­pared their an­nu­al se­lec­tion of the most sig­ni­fic­ant leg­al de­vel­op­ments that may af­fect your busi­ness in Rus­sia in 2022.
01/11/2021
Do­ing busi­ness in Rus­sia
This is the 2021 edi­tion of the Do­ing busi­ness in Rus­sia guide. 
11/10/2021
Lex­o­logy GT­DT - In­sur­ance & Re­in­sur­ance 2021 (Rus­sia)
Lex­o­logy Get­ting The Deal Through has pub­lished the four­teenth edi­tion of In­sur­ance & Re­in­sur­ance.This is a quick ref­er­ence guide en­abling side-by-side com­par­is­on of loc­al in­sights in­to in­sur­ance and re­in­sur­ance is­sues world­wide, in­clud­ing reg­u­la­tion of in­sur­ance and com­pan­ies and their activ­it­ies; in­sur­ance claims and cov­er­age; re­in­sur­ance prin­ciples and prac­tices; dis­putes (in­clud­ing ar­bit­ra­tion); and re­cent trends.The chapter on In­sur­ance & Re­in­sur­ance for Rus­sia 2021 was writ­ten by Seni­or Part­ner Le­onid Zubar­ev. Please find be­low the com­plete art­icle to down­load and con­tact Le­onid Zubar­ev if you need any in­sur­ance-re­lated leg­al ad­vice.Ac­cred­it­a­tion: Re­pro­duced with per­mis­sion from Law Busi­ness Re­search Ltd. This art­icle was first pub­lished in Lex­o­logy Get­ting the Deal Through – In­sur­ance & Re­in­sur­ance 2021 (Pub­lished: Au­gust 2021).
14/09/2021
CMS M&A European Out­look 2022: Road to re­cov­ery
Septem­ber 2021 We are pleased to provide you with this year’s edi­tion of the “European M&A Out­look”, pub­lished in co-op­er­a­tion with Mer­ger­mar­ket
10/06/2021
CMS Rus­sia earns a re­cord num­ber of re­cog­ni­tions by Best Law­yers 2022
Strong re­cog­ni­tion by the rank­ing 32 CMS Rus­sia ex­perts have been se­lec­ted for in­clu­sion in­to the 2022 edi­tion of the Best Law­yers rank­ing. In total, we have earned 74 re­cog­ni­tions by the rank­ing :Ant­on...
27/04/2021
Life in­sur­ance in Rus­sia. Chal­lenges and op­por­tun­it­ies
As­so­ci­ation of European Busi­nesses is pleased to in­vite you to the In­sur­ance and Pen­sions Com­mit­tee’s open event "Life in­sur­ance in Rus­sia. Chal­lenges and op­por­tun­it­ies" de­voted to the leg­al and prac­tic­al...
26/01/2021
Most awaited leg­al de­vel­op­ments of 2021
CMS Rus­sia ex­perts have pre­pared their an­nu­al se­lec­tion of the most awaited leg­al de­vel­op­ments in Rus­sia in 2021.You can read de­tailed art­icles and re­com­mend­a­tions by our ex­perts on the forth­com­ing changes...
04/11/2020
CMS Launches new In­sur­ance Group App
The CMS In­sur­ance Group has an­nounced the launch of a new app for in­surers and re­in­surers, brokers and cli­ents of in­sur­ance com­pan­ies.The app provides ac­cess to in­form­a­tion on the latest leg­al de­vel­op­ments...
15/09/2020
Do­ing busi­ness in Rus­sia 2020
Gen­er­al back­groundThe Rus­si­an leg­al sys­tem gen­er­ally be­longs to the con­tin­ent­al European leg­al fam­ily. The leg­al struc­ture de­veloped at a rap­id pace dur­ing the 1990s. Dur­ing this peri­od, sig­ni­fic­ant re­forms were en­acted in al­most every area of law as the coun­try moved away from its So­viet com­mand eco­nomy.The Con­sti­tu­tion, fed­er­al laws and re­gion­al laws form the found­a­tion of the Rus­si­an leg­al sys­tem. Pres­id­en­tial ex­ec­ut­ive or­ders, de­crees of the Rus­si­an Gov­ern­ment and the de­cisions of vari­ous min­is­tries are used to sup­port and de­vel­op the pro­vi­sions of primary le­gis­la­tion.The Con­sti­tu­tion states that gen­er­al prin­ciples of in­ter­na­tion­al law and in­ter­na­tion­al treat­ies are part of the Rus­si­an leg­al sys­tem. Con­sequently, if Rus­sia is a sig­nat­ory to an in­ter­na­tion­al treaty con­tain­ing pro­vi­sions con­trary to the pro­vi­sions of any do­mest­ic le­gis­la­tion, the pro­vi­sions of the in­ter­na­tion­al treaty will pre­vail. The Con­sti­tu­tion, how­ever, takes pre­ced­ence over any con­tra­dict­ing pro­vi­sion of an in­ter­na­tion­al treaty.The Rus­si­an Civil Code (the “Civil Code”) sets out the found­a­tion of civil law and is the key source of law for busi­ness. As part of the re­form, sig­ni­fic­ant amend­ments to the Civil Code con­cern­ing cor­por­ate law and the law of ob­lig­a­tions came in­to force in Septem­ber 2014 and June 2015. These amend­ments form the most sig­ni­fic­ant de­vel­op­ment since the shap­ing of mod­ern cor­por­ate and com­mer­cial law in Rus­sia. Today, a num­ber of con­cepts which have for a long time been com­mon to in­ter­na­tion­al prac­tice in cor­por­ate, debt and gen­er­al com­mer­cial areas, are also re­cog­nised and widely used in Rus­sia, in par­tic­u­lar:cor­por­ate agree­ments;the “four-eyes” prin­ciple;the con­di­tion­al per­form­ance of ob­lig­a­tions;the concept of rep­res­ent­a­tions (“zaveren­iya ob ob­stoy­a­tel­stvakh”) (an in­ten­ded equi­val­ent of “rep­res­ent­a­tions” and “war­ranties” as used in con­tracts un­der Eng­lish law);the concept of the re­im­burse­ment of losses arising from the oc­cur­rence of cer­tain events spe­cified in a con­tract (the in­ten­ded equi­val­ent of the Eng­lish law concept of an “in­dem­nity”);new types of civil law con­tracts, such as op­tions, frame­work agree­ments and sub­scrip­tion agree­ments;rules for the con­duct of ne­go­ti­ations to con­clude a con­tract; andnew mech­an­isms to se­cure the per­form­ance of con­trac­tu­al ob­lig­a­tions by the parties.These highly sig­ni­fic­ant changes to the Civil Code are in­ten­ded to ac­com­mod­ate the grow­ing trend of sub­mit­ting com­plic­ated trans­ac­tion doc­u­ments to Rus­si­an law and Rus­si­an courts in­stead of Eng­lish law and in­ter­na­tion­al ar­bit­ra­tion which were tra­di­tion­ally the “well-trod­den path” in Rus­sia. It is yet to be seen how the new con­cepts and pro­vi­sions will be en­forced by courts and ar­bit­ral tribunals. Nev­er­the­less, in prac­tice, com­pan­ies are act­ively us­ing the new con­cepts in their pro­jects.WTO­Fol­low­ing 18 years of ne­go­ti­ations, Rus­sia fi­nally joined the World Trade Or­gan­isa­tion in sum­mer 2012 (please see the Cus­toms reg­u­la­tions chapter).At the time, WTO ac­ces­sion sent a pos­it­ive sig­nal to for­eign in­vestors. However, not­able changes such as a ma­ter­i­al drop in tar­iffs on im­por­ted goods and changes to the quotas for for­eign par­ti­cip­a­tion in the in­sur­ance sec­tor have not yet come in­to ef­fect be­cause of the long grace peri­ods that are al­lowed. For ex­ample, un­der WTO rules, for­eign in­sur­ance com­pan­ies will be able to open branch of­fices in Rus­sia, but this is not re­quired to take ef­fect un­til nine years after ac­ces­sion. The rel­ev­ant bill to im­ple­ment this change is in pro­gress and has yet to be sub­mit­ted to the State Duma.For­eign in­vest­ment Leg­al reg­u­la­tionThe main le­gis­lat­ive act gov­ern­ing for­eign in­vest­ments is Fed­er­al Law No. 160-FZ “On For­eign In­vest­ment in the Rus­si­an Fed­er­a­tion” dated 9 Ju­ly 1999. This law states that for­eign in­vestors and in­vest­ments will be treated no less fa­vour­ably than do­mest­ic in­vestors and in­vest­ments, sub­ject to cer­tain wide-ran­ging ex­cep­tions.Ex­cep­tions/re­stric­tions may be in­tro­duced, amongst oth­ers, to pro­tect the Rus­si­an con­sti­tu­tion­al sys­tem; the mor­al­ity, health and rights of third parties; or in or­der to en­sure state se­cur­ity and/or de­fence. Some of the sec­tors con­cerned are com­men­ted on sep­ar­ately be­low. By and large, for­eign in­vest­ment is per­mit­ted in most sec­tors of the Rus­si­an eco­nomy, in­clud­ing in­vest­ment in port­fo­li­os of gov­ern­ment se­cur­it­ies, stocks and bonds, dir­ect in­vest­ment in new busi­nesses, in the ac­quis­i­tion of ex­ist­ing Rus­si­an-owned com­pan­ies and in joint ven­tures.For­eign in­vestors are pro­tec­ted against na­tion­al­isa­tion or ex­pro­pri­ation, un­less this is provided for by fed­er­al law. In these cases, for­eign in­vestors are en­titled to re­ceive com­pens­a­tion for their in­vest­ment and oth­er losses.Ex­clu­sions/re­stric­tionsIn ad­di­tion to the so-called “Stra­tegic In­dus­tries Law” (please see the Com­mon forms of busi­ness struc­tures for for­eign in­vestors chapter), re­stric­tions on for­eign in­vest­ment ex­ist not­ably in the in­sur­ance and bank­ing sec­tors.Fed­er­al Law No. 4015-1 “On In­sur­ance” dated 27 Novem­ber 1992 cur­rently pro­hib­its for­eign in­vestors from own­ing more than 25% of the total mar­ket for do­mest­ic in­sur­ance. In­sur­ance com­pan­ies in which for­eign share­hold­ers own more than 49% of the charter cap­it­al may not en­gage in cer­tain types of in­sur­ance busi­ness, in­clud­ing, for ex­ample, life as­sur­ance. The ex­ist­ing lim­it­a­tions will be partly lif­ted by the le­gis­lat­ive amend­ments which will be con­sidered in con­nec­tion with WTO ac­ces­sion.In the bank­ing sec­tor, the Cent­ral Bank of Rus­sia has the right to use re­ci­pro­city as a cri­terion to spe­cify the types of busi­ness that sub­si­di­ar­ies or branches of for­eign banks may be li­censed to op­er­ate in Rus­sia. In prac­tice, how­ever, branches of for­eign banks are not able to carry out any bank­ing activ­it­ies on the Rus­si­an mar­ket. Ad­di­tion­ally, a ceil­ing on the total amount of for­eign bank cap­it­al, as a per­cent­age of the total bank cap­it­al in Rus­sia, can be im­posed by fed­er­al law; how­ever, no such lim­it ap­plies at the time of writ­ing. Un­der WTO rules, any such ceil­ing may not be less than 50%.Sanc­tionsIn 2014, the European Uni­on and the United States of Amer­ica (among oth­ers) im­posed in­di­vidu­al sanc­tions on cer­tain Rus­si­an and Ukrain­i­an na­tion­als and en­tit­ies that they be­lieve to be re­spons­ible for the ac­tions which led to the de­clar­a­tion of sov­er­eignty by Crimea, and sub­sequently, it be­com­ing part of the Rus­si­an Fed­er­a­tion. Sanc­tions tar­get­ing cer­tain sec­tors of the Rus­si­an eco­nomy (or so-called “sec­tor­al sanc­tions”), as well as re­gion­al sanc­tions pro­hib­it­ing cer­tain eco­nom­ic activ­ity re­lated to Crimea and Sevastopol, have also been ad­op­ted.In re­tali­ation, Rus­sia ad­op­ted coun­tersanc­tions to pro­hib­it the im­port of cer­tain ag­ri­cul­tur­al products, raw ma­ter­i­als and food­stuffs from coun­tries that have im­posed sanc­tions on Rus­sia. In par­al­lel, it also launched an im­port sub­sti­tu­tion policy (please see the Im­port sub­sti­tu­tion and pro­duc­tion loc­al­isa­tion in Rus­sia chapter).2018 marked a turn­ing point in terms of sanc­tions for Rus­sia. In May, the US en­acted le­gis­la­tion that may res­ult in non-US per­sons be­ing held li­able for know­ingly fa­cil­it­at­ing “sig­ni­fic­ant trans­ac­tions” for or on be­half of per­sons sanc­tioned un­der Ukraine-/Rus­sia-re­lated sanc­tions im­posed by the US (so-called “sec­ond­ary sanc­tions”). In Oc­to­ber 2018, the EU ad­op­ted a new sanc­tions frame­work in con­nec­tion with the use and pro­lif­er­a­tion of chem­ic­al weapons which does not ex­pressly tar­get Rus­sia, but is ex­pec­ted to be used against Rus­sia in fu­ture.Again, Rus­sia re­acted to these de­vel­op­ments. Firstly, it ad­op­ted a frame­work law on meas­ures against un­friendly ac­tions of the US and oth­er for­eign states in June 2018 and im­posed the first sanc­tions un­der such law against Ukrain­i­an in­di­vidu­als and leg­al en­tit­ies in Novem­ber 2018. Secondly, it im­posed du­ties on a se­lec­tion of goods im­por­ted from the US from 6 Au­gust 2018. Thirdly, a ban on the im­port to Rus­sia of a num­ber of goods of Ukrain­i­an ori­gin or trans­it­ing through Ukraine was de­clared in Decem­ber 2018 and ex­pan­ded in scope in Decem­ber 2019.Sanc­tions against Rus­si­aEven though each na­tion­al sanc­tions re­gime will vary in scope, the re­stric­tions im­posed can be broadly char­ac­ter­ised as fol­lows.Un­der the in­di­vidu­al sanc­tions re­gime, travel re­stric­tions and as­set freezes have been im­posed on in­di­vidu­als and en­tit­ies lis­ted un­der the rel­ev­ant leg­al acts.Sec­tor­al sanc­tions have been im­posed on the fol­low­ing sec­tors of Rus­si­an eco­nomy:En­ergy sec­tor: the sale, sup­ply, trans­fer or ex­port of items for cer­tain types of oil ex­plor­a­tion and pro­duc­tion pro­jects in Rus­sia and the pro­vi­sion of as­so­ci­ated ser­vices are pro­hib­ited, or sub­ject to pri­or au­thor­isa­tion by the com­pet­ent au­thor­it­ies of the ex­port­ing coun­try. De­part­ing from pre­vi­ous widely worded pro­hib­i­tions, in Decem­ber 2019, the US ad­op­ted a tar­geted ap­proach in the en­ergy sec­tor by re­strict­ing activ­it­ies con­nec­ted with the con­struc­tion and op­er­a­tion of the Nord Stream 2 and Turk­Stream pipelines.Fin­an­cial sec­tor: ma­jor Rus­si­an fin­an­cial in­sti­tu­tions, as well as cer­tain de­fence and en­ergy com­pan­ies, have been pro­hib­ited from deal­ing with bonds, equity or sim­il­ar fin­an­cial in­stru­ments with a ma­tur­ity ex­ceed­ing 14, 30 or 90 days. It is also pro­hib­ited to make loans or cred­it avail­able to any of the en­tit­ies covered by the meas­ures.De­fence sec­tor: Rus­sia is sub­ject to a weapons em­bargo. In ad­di­tion, sup­ply­ing dual use goods and tech­no­logy to Rus­sia is sub­ject to in­di­vidu­al au­thor­isa­tion by the re­spect­ive au­thor­it­ies of the ex­port­ing coun­try. The au­thor­isa­tion will be denied if those items are in­ten­ded for mil­it­ary use or for a mil­it­ary end-user. This type of sanc­tion also af­fects the man­u­fac­ture of civil goods and equip­ment.The activ­it­ies pro­hib­ited un­der re­gion­al sanc­tions in­clude im­port­a­tions from and ex­port­a­tions to Crimea, as well as mak­ing new in­vest­ments (either in gen­er­al or in cer­tain sec­tors).As a res­ult of some re­cent meas­ures aimed at the Rus­si­an state, US banks can no longer par­ti­cip­ate in the primary mar­ket for non-rouble de­nom­in­ated bonds is­sued by the Rus­si­an sov­er­eign and lend non-rouble de­nom­in­ated funds to the Rus­si­an sov­er­eign.Sanc­tions im­posed on Rus­sia are not pro­hib­it­ing all com­mer­cial activ­ity. They are fo­cus­ing on very spe­cif­ic in­di­vidu­als, en­tit­ies, re­gions and eco­nom­ic sec­tors. Com­pan­ies wish­ing to con­tract with Rus­si­an en­tit­ies should carry out en­hanced due di­li­gence to en­sure that they do not be­come in­volved in activ­it­ies pro­hib­ited un­der the rel­ev­ant sanc­tions re­gime.Lob­by­ing­Giv­en how slowly the leg­al cul­ture has de­veloped in Rus­sia, busi­nesses tend not to ex­pend their lob­by­ing ef­forts on at­tempt­ing to in­flu­ence the draft­ing of new laws or the ac­tions of those draft­ing them. In­stead, busi­nesses tend to seek de facto spe­cial treat­ment, such as tax de­fer­ments, cus­toms be­ne­fits, op­er­a­tion li­cences and the right to en­gage in cer­tain kinds of activ­ity. In do­ing so, how­ever it may be that these com­pan­ies ex­pose them­selves un­duly to “polit­ic­al risk” upon any change of ad­min­is­tra­tion and com­pan­ies en­ter­ing the mar­ket need to con­sider how se­cure such con­ces­sions might be for their busi­ness in the long term.There are not many leg­ally re­cog­nised lob­by­ing as­so­ci­ations with a large mem­ber­ship base. Prom­in­ent ex­amples of as­so­ci­ations that do ex­ist are the As­so­ci­ation of Rus­si­an Banks, the Cham­ber of Com­merce and In­dustry of the Rus­si­an Fed­er­a­tion, the Fed­er­a­tion of In­de­pend­ent Trade Uni­ons of Rus­sia and the Uni­on of In­dus­tri­al­ists and En­tre­pren­eurs.Back to top ↑ “The Rus­si­an Civil Code sets out the found­a­tion of civil law and is the key source of law for busi­ness.”  me­di­um­me­di­um­me­di­um