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  1. Introduction
    1. Political and administrative structure
    2. Legal environment
  2. Common forms of business structures for foreign investors
    1. Main types of structure
    2. Registration, liquidation and reorganisation of business structures
    3. Shareholders’ and participants’ agreements
    4. Strategic industries
  3. Anti-monopoly issues
    1. General legal and regulatory framework
    2. Scope of application of the Competition Law
    3. Anti-competitive practices and restriction of competition
    4. Liability
  4. Tax system
    1. General approach
    2. Corporate taxation
    3. Incentives
    4. Special tax regimes
    5. Taxation of individuals
    6. Double taxation treaties
  5. Customs regulations
    1. General approach
    2. Trade between EEU and non-EEU countries
    3. Mutual trade between the EEU members
  6. Currency control
    1. Foreign currency transactions
    2. Consequences of breach/Penalties
  7. Lending in Russia
    1. Lending documents and governing law
    2. Jurisdiction
    3. International finance transactions and repatriation requirements
    4. Security interests
    5. Recognition of security trusts
    6. Syndicated loans
    7. Enforcement
    8. Suretyships and guarantees
    9. Bankruptcy considerations
    10. Other lending related issues
  8. Employment and migration
    1. Formalising the employment relationship
    2. Managing employment relationships
    3. Terminating an employment agreement
    4. Specifics of employing foreign nationals
  9. Personal data protection
    1. General approach
    2. Scope of the Data Protection Law
    3. Liability
    4. Right to be forgotten
  10. Intellectual property
    1. General approach
    2. Contractual aspects of intellectual property rights
    3. Rights over the results of intellectual activity
    4. Company names, trade names, trademarks and appellations of origin
    5. Intellectual property rights infringements
    6. IP Court
  11. Advertising issues
    1. General approach
    2. Scope of application of the Advertising Law
    3. Violations of the Advertising Law
    4. Liability
  12. Anti-corruption and compliance
    1. General approach
    2. Legal framework
    3. Compliance requirements for companies
    4. Concept of corruption in Russian law
    5. Possible targets of bribery
    6. Liability and penalties for corruption
    7. Example of sector-specific anti-corruption measures
  13. Real estate and construction
    1. Rights to real estate
    2. Real estate transactions
    3. Resolution of real estate disputes
    4. Planning and construction issues
  14. Corporate bankruptcy
    1. Insolvency criteria
    2. Stages of bankruptcy proceedings
  15. Import substitution and production localisation in Russia
    1. Measures affecting goods importation and current import substitution legislation
    2. Localisation incentives
    3. Sector-specific impact of import restrictions and localisation requirements
  16. Banking sector
    1. Legislative and regulatory framework
    2. Licensing and operations
    3. Deposit insurance
    4. The anti-money laundering law
    5. Bank secrecy
    6. FATCA and CRS
  17. Environment, energy efficiency and renewables
    1. Environment
    2. Energy efficiency
    3. Renewables
  18. Infrastructure and public private partnerships
    1. General approach
    2. Key PPP legislation
    3. Russian PPP environment
    4. Financing
    5. Legal issues
    6. Prospects for infrastructure projects
  19. Oil & gas
    1. Legislative framework
    2. Ownership and licensing
    3. Restrictions on foreign investors
    4. Licences
    5. PSAs

Contractual aspects of intellectual property rights

Licence agreement


A licence agreement grants the right to use intellectual property rights within the limits set out in the agreement.

Under the Civil Code, licence agreements must set out the following information:

  • the licensed object;
  • the duration of the licence;
  • the territories for which the licence is granted;
  • the manner in which the licensed object may be used; and
  • the amount of remuneration (i.e. the royalty payments) or its method of assessment.

The licence may be granted on an exclusive or on a non-exclusive basis. By granting an exclusive licence, the licensor is not only unable to issue subsequent licences to others, but is also prohibited from itself using the rights transferred under such licence, unless otherwise agreed by the parties. If the licensee is entitled to issue sublicences, this must be expressly provided for in the agreement.

Licences are deemed to be granted for consideration, even if the licence agreement is silent on remuneration. The agreement may fix the amount of remuneration (royalty payments), or set out a method to determine it. Remuneration may take the form of a lump-sum fixed in advance and delivered as a single payment, periodical royalties, or as a percentage of revenues.

Commercial entities are prohibited from entering into exclusive licence agreements worldwide and for the whole term of the respective intellectual property protection on a free-of-charge basis.

Shrink-wrap licences

Shrink-wrap licences for software and databases are where the conditions of the licence are provided for on the plastic wrapping of the CD or in electronic form, and the first use of the software or database by the consumer means they agree to adhere to the conditions of the licence. The Civil Code permits the use of shrink-wrap licences for software and databases which may be granted to each user.

Open licences

The legal concept of an open licence to use works of science, literature or art exists in Russian law. In essence, this type of licence is deemed to be a contract of adhesion. Therefore, the law requires the terms and conditions to be freely accessible to anyone who wishes to review them.

Licence conditions must contain the scope of the use of the work. Unless otherwise stated in the licence conditions, licences will be granted free-of-charge and be valid throughout the world for five years (if the open licence is for computer programmes and databases, this will be for the duration of the exclusive rights).

Assignment of exclusive rights

According to the Civil Code, this contract involves transferring the full and exclusive rights and title to an object of intellectual property rights for the entire period during which these rights are protected. Notably, free-of-charge assignment agreements between commercial entities are expressly prohibited (unless otherwise regulated by the Civil Code).

State registration of contracts

If a trademark, software, database, invention, utility model or design is registered with Rospatent, then any licence, assignment contracts or pledge contracts (as expressly provided for by the Civil Code) also require registration with Rospatent in order for the contract to be valid for third parties.

Key contacts

Anton Bankovskiy
Anton Bankovskiy
Head of Intellectual Property
T +7 495 786 40 63